I spent a good amount of time, over the last twelve months, trying to make sense of the different restrictions to human mobility introduced during the Covid-19 pandemic. Much of this work has been conducted with Andreas Perret, Jelena Dzankic, Timothy Jacob-Owens, Didier Ruedin, Daniele Pezzatini, and Pauline Lecomte.
I already told you about an article I published with some of my co-authored a couple of months ago. Now I would like to introduced the new website that we have created to present some preliminary findings and make our data easily accessible.
Our argument is that Covid-19 travel restrictions have been a global phenomenon, but their impact has varied hugely, depending on an individual’s immigration status, citizenship, employment, and place of residence. It remains to be seen whether, and to what extent, these measures will outlast the pandemic and establish a ‘new normal’ for global mobility.
There are moments when I am not sure sure I deserve to be paid for my work. To counter those doubts, I have decided to save letters of appreciation from students and colleagues. As I am leaving the two positions I have occupied for the last three years, I have two new beautiful letters to store for my archives.
The first letter is for my position as Research Associate for GLOBALCIT. Since 2018, I spent about 25% of my working time in close contact with co-directors Jo Shaw, Maarten Vink, Rainer Bauböck and, above all, Jelena Dzankic. It is a public letter.
Lorenzo Piccoli officially joined the GLOBALCIT team as a Research Associate in 2018, but he has been a much valued collaborator for five years before that. He made a substantial contribution to a number of earlier GLOBALCIT initiatives, including the Conditions for Electoral Rights database, and the ELECLAW indicators.
Lorenzo has a passion for cycling, skiing, novels and film, an immense creative energy and unmatched ‘people skills’. Since 2018, he has done a marvellous job of expanding the Observatory’s communication strategy, especially through social media, infographics, and as an unofficial ‘ambassador’ of GLOBALCIT at events and conferences worldwide.
From 1 April, we bid farewell to Lorenzo, who has become a Research Fellow at the EUI’s Migration Policy Centre, where he will lead the work on teaching and training with the School of Transnational Governance. The whole GLOBALCIT team wishes him the best in this next stage of his career.
The second letter is for my position as Scientific Coordinator of the nccr – on the move where, since 2019, I teamed-up with Gianni D’Amato, the Network Office and, above all, the Administrative Director Nicole Wichmann. It is a letter published on the private channels of the network and I take the freedom to re-post it here.
As many of you probably read, Lorenzo Piccoli will reduce his activity rate for the Network Office in April and May 2021 to 40% and take up a new teaching and research position at the EUI in Florence on 1 June 2021. We are very happy that Lorenzo has been offered this opportunity to invest in his academic career and we wish him all the best in this new position. We are also delighted to continue our collaboration on various research projects until mid-2022.
In retrospect, offering Lorenzo the Scientific Officer’s position two years ago was one of the several very successful staffing decisions we took during the last seven years, which translated into a fantastic strategic asset. Lorenzo managed to give the Migration-Mobility Nexus content and meaning, and he fundamentally reformed all existing platforms and tools created previously.
From the outset, he had the vision of turning the nccr – on the move into a “collaborative network” worth its name. With this idea in mind, he positioned the Research Days, the Neuchâtel Graduate Conference, the Core Courses, and the NCCR Retreats as real exchange platforms. Moreover, he was among one of the first to see in early 2020 that the COVID-19 pandemic was to have a fundamental impact on us as a community of scholars, but also on our research, which was why he began working and reflecting on this topic early on, allowing the NCCR to gain visibility.
These examples among many illustrate the strategic foresight of Lorenzo, who in addition possesses the necessary gracious diplomatic as well as communication skills to actually translate his ideas into collective action. He did not only do an incredible job in the visible areas of the NCCR, he also helped us turn the reporting exercise and other more invisible tools into strategic assets of our common project. In sum, his commitment, enthusiasm and professionalism have left a durable imprint on what the NCCR is, and on how we work, both in the Network Office and in the NCCR Community at large.
There is a reason why all of my recent posts were about Paris: from 1 April 2021, Arianna and I no longer live there. In this post I will tell you about our final 24 hours there.
On the late afternoon of Sunday, we ride to Saint-Denis. This is our last chance to visit Atelier Baptiste and Jaina, our two neighbours we got to know thanks to the pandemic. In Spring 2020 we looked out of our windows clapping, at 8pm sharp. This is when we started to wave at them, since they live right in front of us. Then, in June, once the lockdown was lifted, we met at Patakrep, in Place Petrucciani, during a warm early summer evening. It has been almost one year since they first invited us to visit their Atelier. Finally, we go.
The Atelier is an incredible place: located along the Canal de l’Ourcq, in front of the Stade de France, in the first banlieue north of Paris. The Atelier is part of an old abandoned factory, with four rows of low, red-brick houses, each occupied by a group of artists: sculptures, cartoonists, web-designers, painters, blacksmiths, etc. There are two large streets with small tables where scattered groups of people sit to drink a beer and smoke a cigarette at sunset. Baptiste and Jaina welcome us in the house they share with eight other artists. They work on the clay, and guide us through their latest creations. We leave the Atelier late in the evening.
Monday is our last day in Paris, and it is sunny. We finish painting the apartment and we leave outside our furniture: it is gone in less than thirty minutes. Same story for the food that we deposit in the Frigo Solidaire outside La Cantine du 18e: an initiative to learn from. We go to have lunch along the Canal Saint Martin, near Place de la Republique, with Marco and Estelle. In the afternoon we bid farewell to the owner of the house. She has been rather unpleasant with us for some time now, but shortly before leaving she opens up about her troubles. Each person travels with their baggage, and sometimes it can be very heavy to carry.
The house is pretty empty now. We dine on the small table, one of the last things left in the apartment, right next to the window. In front of us we see Baptise and Jaina, and wave at them one last time. When they close their window, Arianna notices a reflection. It looks like there is someone walking on the roof of our house. Isn’t that weird? Curious, we leave the apartment and walk all the way up the stairs. There is a small ladder that leads to a manhole. When we put the head out, we are mesmerised. We can walk on the roof.
Sunset in Paris, a view on the whole neighbourhood, Butte Montmartre bustling with little lights. Four people are having drinking beer and smoking on the roof. They welcome us there. (They are down-to-earth, funny, half-French, half-Russian, half-Swiss, half-Argentinian. Could have become fantastic friends, if only we’d met earlier). This is quite a shocker. I spent much of the last twelve months complaining about the lack of space and light in our apartment. I did not know that we had one hell of a terrace at our disposal. I could cry about it, or laugh. Arianna and I decided to take it as a final gift, our grand Parisian finale.
Con circa 10 milioni di visitatori all’anno (prima dell’inizio della pandemia), la Basilica del Sacro Cuore di Montmartre a Parigi è il secondo monumento storico più visitato in Francia dopo Notre-Dame de Paris. Tanto per capirci, l’afflusso di persone che salgono in cima a butte Montmartre, dove si trova la Basilica, è superiore a quello di persone che si recano al Louvre e alla Tour Eiffel.
Fino a poco tempo fa ignoravo che questa basilica è particolarmente divisiva nel dibattito francese. La struttura che vediamo oggi fu eretta dopo la Comune di Parigi del 1871: secondo un decreto dell’Assemblée nationale del 24 luglio 1873, la costruzione dell’edificio serviva a “espiare i crimini della comune .. e affermare l’ordine morale”.
Non a caso, il diciottesimo arrondissement è uno dei quartieri più popolari di Parigi e anche il luogo in cui il 18 marzo 1871 il popolo parigino si era sollevato. Il 24 maggio 1873, François Pie, vescovo di Poitiers, avanzò il desiderio di rinnovamento spirituale della Terza Repubblica, espresso attraverso il “Governo di Ordine Morale” che collegava le istituzioni cattoliche a quelle laiche, in “un progetto di rinnovamento religioso e nazionale, le cui caratteristiche principali erano la restaurazione della monarchia e la difesa di Roma all’interno di un quadro culturale di pietà ufficiale”, di cui la basilica del Sacro Cuore avrebbe dovuto essere il principale monumento. Vista da questa prospettiva, l’imponente struttura che domina sul diciottessimo arrondissement assume un significato vagamente minaccioso.
Grazie ad Aurélie, ho scoperto che tre anni fa un parigino propose, nel quadro di un bando partecipativo della città di Parigi, di radere al suolo la basilica. Fu il progetto più “likato” di sempre. La sindaca Anne Hidalgo non diede però seguito alla proposta.
It’s been a week since the French authorities have lifted the lockdown. From our apartment, in Rue Sainte-Isaure, Arianna and I can hear people chatting and having a beer in Place Petrucciani, just down the road.
It’s a festive atmosphere. We love the square. Small, unpretentious, dedicated to the author of (among other feats) this moving performance, it brings together three different bars, one supermarket, and one bakery. It just got a beautiful restyling after this lockdown: people cannot spend time indoor, so the bars are allowed to expand their outdoor area and reclaim space from the cars that would otherwise make their way through the square.
A rainstorm suddenly breaks out. It’s a deluge. As the rain pours down from the sky, we go to the window and watch, and so do our neighbours. We are in awe. Normally, the people in the square would run away and seek shelter. But not this time: having spent the last three months locked inside their houses, they are thrilled to get a good shower and dance. Watching from our window, we wish we were there with them.
Montmartre Qui c’è la sede di Magnum Photos , che è sempre possibile visitare e ha periodiche esibizioni. A Le Bal c’è un’originale selezione di libri, e un bello spazio per leggerli.
Vicino a Gare de l’Est c’è una libreria specializzata in fotografia: La Comete. Nella zona di Odeon, La Chambre Claire ha una selezioni di libri rari. La maggior parte delle mostre fotografiche che ho visto a Parigi le ho visite a Jeu de Paume, a Concorde. Infine, a Hotel de Ville capita talvolta di trovare una mostra di fotografia.
In the interwar period, Paris became home to many of the two million migrants and refugees who found their way to France – Armenian, Eastern, Southern Europeans, Russians refugees from genocide and civil war, those persecuted by European fascism came to Paris in the 1930s. Through the various communities of newcomers, Paris became a mosaic of migrant inscriptions that were in dialogue, built on one another and changed Paris forever.
Among the refugees living there, Fred Stein (who took the picture below and many others), Paul-Adolphe Löffler (who wrote the text below), Hanna Arendt, Alfred Kantoriwicz, Bertold Brecht, Albert Einstein, and Thomas Mann.
Les jours passent, incolores, sans événement. C’est seulement le soir quand nous sommes ensemble que je sens la chaleur de la vie. Elle est gentille, Ilonka, elle ne se plaint jamais d’étre obligée de se lever de bonne heure; å midi, elle déjeune d’un cornet de frites en se promenant dans the rue. Samedi aprés-midi, elle fait la lessive. Que je hais cette société dans laquelle nous vivons! Vivons? Existons. Nous existons obscurément dans la ville lumiére. Nous et d’autres milliers.
Exactly one year after our last free ride trip, on 7 March Jean-Thomas, Yvan and I were back together for what looks like the only journey together on the Swiss snow in 2021.
In the Swiss canton of Obwalden, the cable ride took up all the way up to Mount Titlis (3,238 m). In the afternoon, the clouds rose from the valley, creating that heavenly impression of skiing on the sea. The other mountain tops looked like little islands on the horizon. I had to think about this other time, almost ten years ago now.
You gotta love my contradictions. I hate the gentrification of mountains, yet I am part of it. I am dubious about the ethical implications of keeping the lifts open (Italy and Switzerland shut them down during the pandemic), yet, again, I take my seat and ride on.
What is the connection between Swiss Kohreihen songs, modern tourism, and Wes Anderson’s The Grand Budapest Hotel?
The term nostalgia was coined in the late 1600s by an Alsatian student, Johannes Hofer. He used it in his medical dissertation to describe the specific emotional state felt by the Swiss mercenaries uprooted from their mountains, stationed in the service of Louis XIV, and weakened, in fact, by what was previously called la maladie du pays. The 1767 Dictionnaire de Musique by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, himself a citizen of Geneva, claimed that Swiss mercenaries were threatened with severe punishment to prevent them from singing their Ranz des Vaches or Kuhreihen songs.
Nostalgia would become an important trope in Romanticism. This led, among other things, to the development of early tourism in the Alps. Trips to the Swiss mountains became widespread among the European cultural elite in the 19th century. The first organised tourist holidays in the world were organised in Switzerland by British impresarios (Thomas Cook and Lunn Travel companies). It was the genesis of what we know today as ‘going on vacation‘.
For some people, nostalgia continued to designate a medical condition typical of those who are far from the place where they were born. Well into 1946, in the United States doctors still referred to nostalgia as “the immigrant psychosis” due to people pining for their home countries as they attempted to process life in a new one.
In Europe, nostalgia had lost its exclusive connections with a place and was no longer considered a medical condition. Poets started to use the word when longing for the past or even for the present. Nostalgia represented a very powerful concept in the Austrian literary school of the early nineteenth century of Stefan Zweig and Joseph Roth. Their writings inspired for Wes Anderson’s The Grand Budapest Hotel, a film imbued with sentimental nostalgia.
Of course, this is quite a change from the initial findings of Hofer, who described the syndrome of nostalgia through its symptoms: fainting and high fever, stomach pain and death. Among the suggested treatments: opium, leeches and, in extreme cases, terror. The latter was adopted by a Russian General who, in 1733, decided to bury alive soldiers incapacitated by nostalgia. It is reported that “after two or three burials, the outbreak of homesickness subsided“.